Natural microbial oxidation is sustained by surface gas transfer notably via weir falls and wind driven waves especially at higher speeds inducing overturning and bubble engagement. Photosynthetic algal, rhyzomic and "natural" plant oxidation capacities are marginal by comparison and possess severely limited toxic shock resistance.
WATER = "Wind-Assisted Treatment for Environmental Recovery" won DTI SMART Awards for FRED as a creative concept to assist nature survive the suffocating burdens of man's excesses which nowadays often overwhelm ambient biotic pasteurisation capacities of weir falls and wind waves on natural waterways.
BOOSTIRTM= "Biological Oxidative Operation in Single Tank for Integrated Recovery" is a motored multistage manifestation of WATER retaining its ruggedised bioprocess environment evolved for tolerance to energy intermittency of wind-driven agitation-aeration but sacrificing its wind-turbine in response to sector scepticism on novelty.
FRED = "Flow Research Evaluation Diagnostics" Ltd was founded 1988 as campus start-up SME by Neale Thomas to channel commercial consultancies, later also as platform for 4 DTI SMART Awards on WATER & SPRAY envirotech principles now as near market protoproducts in urgent need of champions for commercial carrythrough.
Neale Thomas - graduated in aeronautics, doctored in oceanography, postdoctored in nuclear / civil engineering flows, specialising in military / industrial / environmental heat, turbulence and two-phase transport dynamics. 100+ outputs plus 25+ reports, also 20 PhD and 20 MSc projects, with 10 years faculty finals core course teaching
philosophy- soundly scienced simple sufficiency surpasses superficially sophisticated simulation in significance for feasibility formulations and technical troubleshooting ... indeed individual imagination inspires ingenious innovation which by implication is inaccessible to consensus correlation capabilities of complex computational codes.
premise - surface paddles are inefficient, wasting energy on interfacial area as drops in air rather than as bubbles in water and dispersing aerosolised odours and potentially harmful viral pathogens. Submerged paddles as favoured by mainstream process industry are inefficient energisers in gas dissolution from sparged bubbles.
premise - diffusers as submerged perforated/ porous spargers for fine bubble-bed dispersions have been favoured for widely acclaimed dissolution efficiencies above industry benchmark though less impressive with interfacial ageing inhibition in dirty waters. Membranes maybe offer a better bet for radically improved performance but escape from diffusionally-blocked boundary exchanges needs new ideas - < FRED >
benchmark - aeration performance as dissolution rate per unit power resides in the order of kgO per kWh, from factor 5 less for crude paddles in dirty water to factor 5 more for best new membranes in clean water. Pumped air as 1mm bubbles at 10% v/v from 1m accesses ~ 20kgO / kWh - on this basis benchmark efficiency is just 5%
WATER-BOOSTIR - emergent protoproducts spawned via DTI SMART Awards since supplemented by ongoing in-house trialling experience and RTD extending to basic studies as PhD CASE campus project sponsored by FRED - in all, a £250k program of investment resulting in technoprospects revolutionising market margin for the sector
WATER and BOOSTIR from FRED spawned via SMART Awards from DTI 1991-3
snorkel induction - self-aspirating stirrer variant for operability via wind-driven variable speed shaft. Perforated subpressure surface of each racetrack tube bubbles constant volume airflow per unit power to design speed accessing 4kgO/kWh (10% v/v) on 1m depth drag mode but feasibly x10+ more with streamline vented lifting surface section.
wind-turbine - "Adaptive Attitude Vertical Axis Wind Turbine" (AA-VAWT)... Savonius for high torque start-up in 1 m/s wind and Darrius for low drag steady state in 5+m/s wind with feathering for 15+m/s wind. Design delivery 40 W/m2 in 6 m/s wind or 40% efficiency extracted directly via shaft as 40W/m3 power in 1m agitated-aeration tank.
capacity - extended evaluations up to 1m pilot plants sustained aerobic digestion to 1kg/kWh. Domestic duty 200L/day of 400mg/L TOD = B+N OD (mm screened) /pop implies 300 pop/kW or 12 pop/m3 at 40 W/m3 as 40 mgO/L/h = 5xNTP O-sat/h limit for aerobic activity and 10h transit time. BOOSTIR at 80W/m3 routinely doubled this capacity and further doubling may be accessible - to 2.5h transit time or 48 pop/m3.
financial - BOOSTIR's direct cost (est) £500/m3 or £20/pop against retail price (est) £160/pop - over 10-year plant lifetime = 800m3/pop or 20p/m3 dominates £16/pop on energy (6p/kWh). Capital cost (size) reduction by intensification is driver, not energy.
market - 10% UK pop regarded as remote rural, supported by stand-alone sewage services. For 10-year unit lifetime, sales are equivalent to servicing 500k pop pa - or £80Mpa (£160/pop) retail against BOOSTIR's cost £10Mpa (£20/pop). UK market is 10% Euro market and 1% World market - so 10% + 1% + 0.1% would be tidy earner!
reedbeds- vaunted by greenies for their natural appeal but failed to deliver on price and on performance. US-EPA has expressed increasing concern about long-term sanitation risks posed by ageing failing facilities. Ironically they work best at sites where strong winds can overcome damping by reeds of wind-wave gas dissolution!
acid waters - former NRA's rescue operation at the Wheal Jane site was founded on the notion that "natural" remediation by reedbeds aided by horseshit might save the day for Falmouth Bay's oysterbeds. Harsh realities provided a rude awakening that reeded trickle beds are expensive and impracticable for the duty demanded here.
WATER affords a commercially credible retrofit rescue for reedbeds costing 80+p/m3 at remote sites lacking installed mains power, also as booster for overloaded lagoons and has been shown to bio-precipitate acidi fying metals lifting pH from 3- to 7 in 24h.